Edmund Husserl (1859-1938)

The Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology – ENG

husserlHusserl was born in Prossnitz (Moravia) on April 8th, 1859. His parents were non-orthodox Jews; Husserl himself and his wife would later convert to Protestantism. They had three children, one of whom died in World War I. In the years 1876–78 Husserl studied astronomy in Leipzig, where he also attended courses of lectures in mathematics, physics and philosophy. Among other things, he heard Wilhelm Wundt’s lectures on philosophy. (Wundt was the originator of the first institute for experimental psychology.) Husserl’s mentor was Thomas Masaryk, a former student of Brentano’s, who was later to become the first president of Czechoslovakia. In 1878–81 Husserl continued his studies in mathematics, physics and philosophy in Berlin. His mathematics teachers there included Leopold Kronecker and Karl Weierstrass, whose scientific ethos Husserl was particularly impressed with. However, he took his PhD in mathematics in Vienna, with a thesis on the theory of variations (Jan. 1883). After that he returned to Berlin, to become Weierstrass’ assistant. When Weierstrass got seriously ill, Masaryk suggested that Husserl go back to Vienna, to study philosophy with Franz Brentano, the author of Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint (1874). After a brief military service in Vienna, Husserl followed Masaryk’s advice and studied with Brentano from 1884–86. Brentano’s lectures on psychology and logic had a lasting impact on Husserl, as had his general vision of a strictly scientific philosophy. Brentano then recommended Husserl to his pupil Carl Stumpf in Halle, who is perhaps best known for his Psychology of Tone (two volumes, 1883/90). This recommendation enabled Husserl to prepare and submit his habilitation dissertation On the Concept of Number (1887) with Stumpf.

Fonte: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Continuar lendo

Hesíodo (entre 750 e 650 a.C.)

Teogonia (séc. VIII/VII A.C.) – PT / ENG / ESP

hesiod-smNot a great deal is known about the details of Hesiod’s life. He was a native of Boeotia, a district of central Greece to which his father had migrated from Cyme in Asia Minor. Hesiod may at first have been a rhapsodist (a professional reciter of poetry), learning the technique and vocabulary of the epic by memorizing and reciting heroic songs. He himself attributes his poetic gifts to the Muses, who appeared to him while he was tending his sheep; giving him a poet’s staff and endowing him with a poet’s voice, they bade him “sing of the race of the blessed gods immortal.” That his epics won renown during his lifetime is shown by his participation in the contest of songs at the funeral games of Amphidamas at Chalcis on the island of Euboea. This, he says, was the only occasion on which he crossed the sea, but it is not likely to have been the only invitation he received from places other than his hometown of Ascra, near Mount Helicon. Continuar lendo

Michel Foucault (1926-1984)

História da Sexualidade I (1976) – PT
História da Sexualidade II (1984) – PT
A História da Loucura (1961) – PT

foucault_headFoucault was born in Poitiers, France, on October 15, 1926. His student years seem to have been psychologically tormented but were intellectually brilliant. He became academically established during the 1960s, when he held a series of positions at French universities, before his election in 1969 to the ultra-prestigious Collège de France, where he was Professor of the History of Systems of Thought until his death. From the 1970s on, Foucault was very active politically. He was a founder of the Groupe d’information sur les prisons and often protested on behalf of homosexuals and other marginalized groups. He frequently lectured outside France, particularly in the United States, and in 1983 had agreed to teach annually at the University of California at Berkeley. An early victim of AIDS, Foucault died in Paris on June 25, 1984. In addition to works published during his lifetime, his lectures at the Collège de France, being published posthumously, contain important elucidations and extensions of his ideas. Continuar lendo

René Descartes (1596 – 1650)

Discurso sobre o Método (1637) – PT / ENG
Meditações Metafísicas (1641) – PT / ENG

Descartes (1)René Descartes (1596–1650) was a creative mathematician of the first order, an important scientific thinker, and an original metaphysician. During the course of his life, he was a mathematician first, a natural scientist or “natural philosopher” second, and a metaphysician third. In mathematics, he developed the techniques that made possible algebraic (or “analytic”) geometry. In natural philosophy, he can be credited with several specific achievements: co-framer of the sine law of refraction, developer of an important empirical account of the rainbow, and proposer of a naturalistic account of the formation of the earth and planets (a precursor to the nebular hypothesis). More importantly, he offered a new vision of the natural world that continues to shape our thought today: a world of matter possessing a few fundamental properties and interacting according to a few universal laws. This natural world included an immaterial mind that, in human beings, was directly related to the brain; in this way, Descartes formulated the modern version of the mind–body problem. In metaphysics, he provided arguments for the existence of God, to show that the essence of matter is extension, and that the essence of mind is thought. Descartes claimed early on to possess a special method, which was variously exhibited in mathematics, natural philosophy, and metaphysics, and which, in the latter part of his life, included, or was supplemented by, a method of doubt.

Fonte: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Continuar lendo