Descartes – cogito ergo sum

I suppose, accordingly, that all the things which I see are false; fictitious. I believe that none of those objects which my fallacious memory represents ever existed; I suppose that I possess no senses; I believe that body, figure, extension, motion, and place are merely fictions of my mind. What is there, then, that can be esteemed true? Perhaps this only, that there is absolutely nothing certain. But how do I know that there is not something different altogether from the objects I have now enumerated, of which it is impossible to entertain the slightest doubt? Is there not a God, or some being, by whatever name I may designate Him, who causes these thoughts to arise in my mind? But why suppose such a Being, for it may be I myself am capable of producing them? Am I, then, at least not something? But I before denied that I possessed senses or a body; I hesitate, however, for what follows from that? Am I so dependent on the body and the senses that without these I cannot exist? But I had the persuasion that there was absolutely nothing in the world, that there was no sky and no earth, neither minds nor bodies; was I not, therefore, at the same time, persuaded that I did not exist? Far from it; I assuredly existed, since I was persuaded. But there is I know not what being, who is possessed at once of the highest power and the deepest cunning, who is constantly employing all his ingenuity in deceiving me. Doubtless, then, I exist, since I am deceived; and, let him deceive me as he may, he can never bring it about that I am nothing, so long as I shall be conscious that I am something. So that it must, in fine, be maintained, all things being maturely and carefully considered, that this proposition: I am, I exist; is necessarily true each time it is expressed by me, or conceived in my mind.

Descartes, “Meditations On First Philosophy”

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Heidegger – sobre o método cartesiano

[…] “Método” é agora o nome para o pro-cedimento assegurador e conquistador que se abate sobre o ente, a fim de assegurá-lo como objeto para o sujeito. E nesse sentido metafísico que o termo methodus é visado, quando Descartes apresenta no importante ensaio “Regulae ad directionem ingenii”, ensaio que só foi publicado depois de sua morte, a IV. Regula: “Necessaria est methodus ad rerutn veritatem investigandam.”

“Necessário (essencialmente necessário) é o método, a fim de farejar o rastro da verdade (certeza) do ente e de seguir esse rastro.”

Heidegger, “Nietzsche II”, p.101

Descartes – a supremacia das matemáticas

“Eis por que, talvez, daí nós não concluamos mal se dissermos que a Física, a Astronomia, a Medicina e todas as outras ciências dependentes da consideração das coisas compostas são muito duvidosas e incertas; mas que a Aritmética, a Geometria e as outras ciências desta natureza, que não tratam senão de coisas muito simples e muito gerais, sem cuidarem muito em se elas existem ou não na natureza, contêm alguma coisa de certo e indubitável. Pois, quer eu esteja acordado, quer esteja dormindo, dois mais três formarão sempre o número cinco e o quadrado nunca terá mais do que quatro lados; e não parece possível que verdades tão patentes possam ser suspeitas de alguma falsidade ou incerteza.”

Descartes, “Meditações” (p.3-4)

René Descartes (1596 – 1650)

Discurso sobre o Método (1637) – PT / ENG
Meditações Metafísicas (1641) – PT / ENG

Descartes (1)René Descartes (1596–1650) was a creative mathematician of the first order, an important scientific thinker, and an original metaphysician. During the course of his life, he was a mathematician first, a natural scientist or “natural philosopher” second, and a metaphysician third. In mathematics, he developed the techniques that made possible algebraic (or “analytic”) geometry. In natural philosophy, he can be credited with several specific achievements: co-framer of the sine law of refraction, developer of an important empirical account of the rainbow, and proposer of a naturalistic account of the formation of the earth and planets (a precursor to the nebular hypothesis). More importantly, he offered a new vision of the natural world that continues to shape our thought today: a world of matter possessing a few fundamental properties and interacting according to a few universal laws. This natural world included an immaterial mind that, in human beings, was directly related to the brain; in this way, Descartes formulated the modern version of the mind–body problem. In metaphysics, he provided arguments for the existence of God, to show that the essence of matter is extension, and that the essence of mind is thought. Descartes claimed early on to possess a special method, which was variously exhibited in mathematics, natural philosophy, and metaphysics, and which, in the latter part of his life, included, or was supplemented by, a method of doubt.

Fonte: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Continuar lendo