Sartre – apologia à fenomenologia

Ele comia com os olhos. Esta frase e muitos outros signos marcam suficientemente a ilusão comum ao realismo e ao idealismo, segundo a qual conhecer é comer. A filosofia francesa, após cem anos de academicismo, ainda permanece nisto. (…) todos acreditamos que o Espírito-Aranha atraia as coisas para sua teia, cobria-as com uma baba branca e lentamente as deglutia,
reduzindo-as à sua própria substância. O que é uma mesa, um rochedo, uma casa? Um certo composto de “conteúdos de consciência”, uma ordem desses conteúdos.

SARTRE, Jean-Paul. “Une idée fondamentale de la phénoménologie de Husserl: l‟intentionnalité”, in: Sartre, La transcendance de l’Ego et autres textes phénoménologiques. Texte introduits et annotés par V. de Coorebyter. Paris: J. Vrin, 2003.

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Edmund Husserl (1859-1938)

The Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology – ENG

husserlHusserl was born in Prossnitz (Moravia) on April 8th, 1859. His parents were non-orthodox Jews; Husserl himself and his wife would later convert to Protestantism. They had three children, one of whom died in World War I. In the years 1876–78 Husserl studied astronomy in Leipzig, where he also attended courses of lectures in mathematics, physics and philosophy. Among other things, he heard Wilhelm Wundt’s lectures on philosophy. (Wundt was the originator of the first institute for experimental psychology.) Husserl’s mentor was Thomas Masaryk, a former student of Brentano’s, who was later to become the first president of Czechoslovakia. In 1878–81 Husserl continued his studies in mathematics, physics and philosophy in Berlin. His mathematics teachers there included Leopold Kronecker and Karl Weierstrass, whose scientific ethos Husserl was particularly impressed with. However, he took his PhD in mathematics in Vienna, with a thesis on the theory of variations (Jan. 1883). After that he returned to Berlin, to become Weierstrass’ assistant. When Weierstrass got seriously ill, Masaryk suggested that Husserl go back to Vienna, to study philosophy with Franz Brentano, the author of Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint (1874). After a brief military service in Vienna, Husserl followed Masaryk’s advice and studied with Brentano from 1884–86. Brentano’s lectures on psychology and logic had a lasting impact on Husserl, as had his general vision of a strictly scientific philosophy. Brentano then recommended Husserl to his pupil Carl Stumpf in Halle, who is perhaps best known for his Psychology of Tone (two volumes, 1883/90). This recommendation enabled Husserl to prepare and submit his habilitation dissertation On the Concept of Number (1887) with Stumpf.

Fonte: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Continuar lendo